Connect to a wireless network using command line nmcli

I use a lot of minimal installs on various ARM devices. They’re good because they’re quick to download and you can test most of the functionality of the device to ensure it’s working or to quickly test specific functionality but of course it doesn’t have a GUI to use the nice graphical tools which are useful to quickly connect to a wifi network or other things.

This where nmcli comes in handy to quickly do anything you can do with the GUI. To connect to a wireless network I do:

Check you can see the wireless NIC and that the radio is enabled (basically “Airplane” mode):

# nmcli radio
WIFI-HW  WIFI     WWAN-HW  WWAN    
enabled  enabled  enabled  enabled 
# nmcli device
DEVICE  TYPE      STATE         CONNECTION 
wlan0   wifi      disconnected  --         
eth0    ethernet  unavailable   --         
lo      loopback  unmanaged     --         

Then to actually connect to a wireless AP:

# nmcli device wifi rescan
# nmcli device wifi list
# nmcli device wifi connect SSID-Name password wireless-password

And that should be enough to get you connected. You can list the connection with nmcli connection and various other options. It’s pretty straight forward. The only complaint I have is that it doesn’t prompt for a password if you leave it out so it means the AP password is stored on the command line history. Not a major given it’s quite easy to find where it’s stored anyway on the system but it would be a useful addition.

Fedora 24 Alpha for aarch64 and POWER

So Fedora 24 Alpha is out for aarch64 and POWER. Keen followers will note that we were a couple of days behind the primary architecture’s Alpha release, which hasn’t been the case for the last few Fedora cycles where we’ve generally released on the same day.

The primary reason for the delay was the Pungi Refactor. While the pungi 4 change has been massive for primary architectures for the secondary architectures it’s the single biggest change to our release process EVER! Basically we’ve thrown the lot out and started again. When I started in release engineering over 18 months ago the number one goal that was set for me can be summarised as “Be more like primary. Make the whole secondary architecture as close to primary as possible!” and we’ve been continuously moving, albeit not as fast as I would have liked, in that general direction. With the arrival of pungi 4 for Fedora 24 we’re almost at that end goal in terms of the current way we do secondary architectures.

With Fedora 24 we’re also adding a lot more release engineering focused features and functionality to the secondary architectures. We have now have full nightly composes on rawhide and branched whereas previously we’d just produce a “Everything” repo. This allows ongoing continual testing on things so it’s easier to know when things regress. On PowerPC we’ve produced qcow2 cloud images to some degree since Fedora 22 but it was a bit of a manual process. These are now fully integrated into the pungi/koji process and, like on primary produced nightly, similarly they’ll be coming to aarch64 very shortly too. In Fedora 24 we’ve added Docker base images, they’re produced nighly on branched and rawhide for PowerPC now, and will be nightly for aarch64 at the same time the qcow2 cloud images arrive. Finally aarch64 will also soon have disk images like ARMv7 on primary to enable us to easily support the new shiny aarch64 Single Board Computers (SBCs) that are _FINALLY_ becoming available for the architecture, for Fedora 24 it’ll be a bit of a hack, but with Fedora 25 both ARMv7 and aarch64 will be able to move to koji based live-media-creator image build process but I’ll outline more of that in another post.

So the pungi refactor has been big for the secondary architectures. It’s required big changes in our infrastructure which is now mostly complete, there’s a few infrastructure cleanups and final changes that are in process, these will be done in the next few weeks in the lead up to Beta. We have a single host left to migrate to ansible (YAY!!) and some final moving around of resources. We’ll be changing the way we sync content out to mirrors too which will close out one of the final deltas of the rel-eng secondary process. Overall the last few weeks have been challenging getting all the bits in place, but by the time we hit Beta it’ll all be complete! The new processes lay the foundations for the secondary architectures to add functionality quicker than ever before, and by being almost identical to primary the “onboarding” of new people to use that process, or end users be able to consume the output of the rel-eng process is easier than ever before and that makes me happy! 🙂

Lipstick on a Pig AKA the Raspberry Pi 3

So while waiting for local scratch kernel builds for much more interesting devices I started looking around to see if I could find details of the kernel sources for the new BCM2837 SoC that is centre stage in the Raspberry Pi 3.

The problem is I couldn’t. What I did find is the hack the Raspberry Pi Foundation uses to boot the RPi3 on github.

So there is no source code release for the new BCM2837 SoC, just a device tree file. Someone said to me “They’re violating the GPL” and before people get out their pitch forks… they’re NOT because this is the code they ship, they are meeting their obligations there.

So for the lay person (yes, I know there’s a lot of deep level tech details I’m glossing over deep ARM architecturey people!!) basically what they are doing is booting this device as a ARMv7 device, and because the code isn’t built for ARMv8 (32 or 64 bit) they really just get the speed bump of a ARMv7 device running a bit faster, and possibly some better memory speeds and other general improvements.

So what does this mean for other distributions that wish to actually to support the Raspberry Pi 3 as a aarch64 device? You currently can NOT do so!. Why? Basically it boils down to two things:

  • Source code release for the kernel: To be honest I don’t think this should be large. People with low level knowledge of ARMv7 and the BCM283x could probably hack this up
  • Firmware support: I suspect there will need to be a new firmware that supports booting this as a aarch64 device. I obviously don’t know for sure but I’m guessing the firmware will need changes to actually properly boot this as a aarch64 device. I’ve little doubt there’s a bunch of hackery going on in there!

Of the above two, if my theory is correct, the firmware is the problematic one because it relies on the Raspberry Pi Foundation to do the work. This work for something that they feel, at the moment, gives them no particular gain but only confusion about multiple OSes. They are of course correct for their use case, basically like old school enterprise where you buy a bigger server to scale vertically because your app won’t scale horizontally, but this is another kick in the guts of the Open Source community they so heavily rely on! Oh well, it’s about as much as I expected from the Raspberry Pi Foundation as after all their devices are only just now becoming usable with upstream kernels and open userspace GPU drivers…. after a mere four years.

So what does this mean for Fedora? Basically the only way we’ll be able to support it in the short, possibly medium, term is like it’s sibling the Raspberry Pi 2 as an ARMv7 device but with added shitty wifi. Really, this device isn’t a cheap aarch64 device, it’s just like lipstick on a pig! If a cheap aarch64 device is what you want one of those go and buy a PINE64.

On the plus side the work needed to support it as a ARMv7 device at the same time as it’s sibling should just be some minor u-boot and kernel device tree patches on top of what I previously documented . Note I’ve not looked closely at this as yet, I’m still waiting for mine to arrive (YAY day 3 of 1 day shipping)! Frankly I’d sooner support it this way, an aarch64 device with terrible USB2 IO and 1GB of RAM won’t provide much, if any, of a perf bump over ARMv7, and then have the Raspberry Pi Foundation spend their time working with Broadcom on fixing the wifi and enabling distribution of the wifi firmware in linux-firmware as proper opensource broadcom wifi support would have a wider impact on the Open Source community the Foundation relies upon!

Supporting Fedora 24 on the Raspberry Pi 2

So I get asked the question dozens of times a day so I thought I’d outline the answer to the question “When is Fedora going to support the Raspberry Pi 2?” and “The kernel support is upstream in the 4.5 kernel, why isn’t it enabled in Fedora 24?”

Ultimately support in the kernel is great, it’s obviously a core blocker, and the first steps to supporting a new piece of hardware in Fedora. The thing is that when people say kernel support is easy they are partially right but it’s only a very small part of what’s needed to support a complex device such has an ARMv7 Single Board Computer for the average user, especially one as popular as the Raspberry Pi! To make the device work with Fedora we could just enable the kernel bits but it doesn’t make for a good user experience OOTB (Out Of The Box).

With a lot of ARMv7 devices these days a new device comes out and it just works with Fedora. It’s awesome when I read a report, or someone tells me “I tried device X with Fedora and it just worked”. That’s because of a lot of work Fedora, and others, have done to ensure upstream boot loaders and boot process just works with new devices. It’s taken a long time to get us to this point. The Raspberry Pi is sadly not like all the other ARMv7 or aarch64 devices. It doesn’t have a standard boot process, doesn’t use u-boot or uEFI, needs vFAT partitions, firmware, text config files and other things that none of our other supported devices need. All of these differences need to be taken into account.

So in terms of the support being upstream in 4.5 the answer to that is it’s “mostly” upstream, there’s still a bunch of patches we’d need to pull in to ensure a nice OOTB experience. This isn’t a blocker in my opinion, it’s something that’s relatively straight foward with most of the bits already headed upstream into 4.6 so it’s a short term issue.

For the rest of the bits what do I consider a nice out of the box experience? This:

  • A single image to support the Raspberry Pi and all out devices (more on that below)
  • Graphics and USB support from boot to login
  • Most basic peripherals working, at a minimum USB (inc keyboard/mouse), HDMI, wired ethernet, a decent selection of wireless USB dongles, storage (MMC and USB) and preferably sound (analog, digital HDMI, mic)
  • A means of easily creating a bootable SD card from at least the Fedora command line, and probably Windows or MacOSX
  • Good documentation, FAQ etc

Single Image:
We currently produce a lot of different images for ARMv7 like Workstation, Server, Minimal and various desktops. If we had to double the amount of images we make to add vFAT that would double the work needed by QA, rel-eng and also lead to confusion by end users as to which image is needed. I have no intention of doubling anyone’s work, or adding confusion for end users, there needs to be a proper engineering solution to this problem!

Serial Console
A number of people have said to me “just enable it and tell them to use the serial console” but having been working on ARMv7 for over 6 years now I know from experience that this leads to vast amounts of confusion by end users as to why “it’s not working” and it leads to a lot of time “providing support” to end users. With a device such as the Raspberry Pi this will become an order of magnitude worse which won’t provide users a good Fedora experience, and likely drive the people who are trying to support the device a even more nuts than normal!

Basic peripheral support
I feel that network, storage, display, input and sound, although I’m still on the fence about sound, are the minimum viable supported peripherals needed for a good OOTB experience for users.

I know that initially we won’t support HATs very well, you can already copy around device tree overlays in the /sys filesystem for basic support, but upstream still hasn’t finalised what a good experience will look like in this regard. I think we can live with this. This won’t stop the use of I2C or SPI devices connected to the 40 pin header, most of these should work just fine.

Image to card creation
Closely related to the single image and basic peripheral support I think the ability to easily create an image to use is important. I’m not sure we’re going to be able to easily solve the Windows/OSX problem, although to be honest I’ve not looked at what’s out there and we might be able to extend LiveUSBCreator here.

Raspberry Pi 3
So when will we support this? Well the kernel support hasn’t been released yet, at least that I could find at the time of writing this. That being said I don’t think it’ll be a particularly evasive or large patch set, the hardware around the Cortex-A53 is the same, so it’ll be just some glue and a pinctrl driver to make all the bits work together, likely not too dissimilar to other recent SoCs that have gained ARMv8 support. This won’t land in 4.6 as the major changes are already queued to land in that, so likely 4.7 will be the earliest upstream kernel. The wireless on the other hand could be more interesting.

So basically the work needed for support of the Raspberry Pi 3, with a proper 64 bit OS 😉 , shouldn’t be too hard once the kernel bits are upstream.

Firmwares
The other issue we had was the legal ability to redistribute the “GPU boot loader firmware” thankfully that problem was resolved about a year ago, although it did take us over 2 years to do so!

The other firmware issue which will cause problems with Raspberry Pi 3 support is that the Broadcom wireless is notoriously terrible, as any Linux running Mac user will contest to, and their wireless firmware isn’t re-distributable in the standard process of being included in the upstream linux-firmware. With luck this is something that the Raspberry Pi Foundation could assist Broadcom in improving!

Summary
So we’re well on the way to adding support. Assistance in the issues above would be very welcome, whether for supporting a single image or adding support for writing images for the Pi, to help us get the bits done sooner rather than later. Feel free to reach out to me on IRC (pbrobinson on FreeNode) or some other means.

My ARM grab bag device list

They say the first step of coming to terms with addiction is admitting you have a problem… I have a problem with collecting ARM devices… there I said it! How big is this problem you ask? How about I list them out and let you decide!

I’ll break the list down into categories as I believe it’s big enough to do so :-/

The aarch64 set of devices currently stands at:

  • 2x Applied Mustang (different x-gene SoC revs)
  • AMD Seattle
  • 96boards HiKey (hi6220)

The ARMv7 boards list is currently:

  • Compulabs Trimslice (tegra-2)
  • Toshiba AC100 (tegra-2)
  • nVidia Jetson TK1 (tegra-124)
  • Acer Chromebook (tegra-124)
  • BeagleBoard xM (omap3)
  • Nokia n900 (omap3)
  • Nokia n950 prototype (omap3)
  • BeagleBone (am33xx)
  • BeagleBone Black (am33xx) x3
  • BeagleBone Green (am33xx)
  • PandaBoard ES Prototype (omap4)
  • PandaBoard ES B2 (omap4)
  • CubieBoard (allwinner-a10)
  • CubieTruck (allwinner-a20)
  • Banana Pi (allwinner-a20)
  • C.H.I.P. Alpha x2 (allwinner-r8)
  • Snowball (u8500)
  • Compulabs Utilite (imx6q)
  • WandBoard Quad revb (imx6q)
  • novena board (imx6q)
  • RIoTboard (imx6s)
  • UDOO Neo (imx6sx)
  • Origen (exynos-4)
  • OLPC XO 1.75 – a number of variants (mmp2) xNumerous
  • OLPC XO-4 including XO-Touch (mmp3) xNumerous
  • Linksys WRT1900AC (armada-xp)
  • Mirabox (armada-370)
  • ifc6410 (qcom)
  • Parallella Board (zynq7000)
  • Raspberry Pi 2 x3

The Cortex-M series for IoT sensors is currently:

  • TI SensorTag 2015
  • ARM mBed IoT starter kit
  • BeeWi SmartClim

Other random related bits:

  • BeagleBone Breadboard Prototyping Cape x2
  • BeagleBone CryptoCape
  • Original 256Mb Raspberry Pi model B
  • Grove starter kit for BeagleBone Green
  • Explorer HAT
  • PiGlo HAT
  • TI CC2531 802.15.4 USB dongle x3
  • numerous random sensors

So the list above is the devices that I use for hacking on. I count 41 without listing out the dozen or so ARM based XOs I have (various prototypes and models). I also don’t have in that list phones, tablets and two drones as I don’t really hack on those as it’s not like with the list above I don’t already have enough toys! So do I have a problem?

Flock Rochester

I’m not going to do a day by day outline of what I did at flock, if I did it would basically be “blah blah blah I talked a lot to a lot of people about a lot of tech topics” and anyone that’s ever met me would have guessed that! It was, as in the past, a great conference. A big shout out to the organisers for an excellent event with two excellent evening events! So I’m going to give a brief summary to my talks and link to slides and video recordings.

My first talk was an overview of the state of aarch64 and POWER as secondary architectures. The slides aren’t particularly interesting as they’re just words for discussion points. The video has all the interesting bits. A related talk was Dennis’s Standardising ARMv7 booting with a memorial quote by Jon Masters 😉

My second talk was about using Fedora as a base for IoT. Slides are here but the talk was quite a bit different to the slides and is more interesting so I suggest watching the video.

I also actively participated in Dennis’s Fedora Release Engineering going forward because well obviously I’m part of it 😉 and it was interesting for where we’re going, and even where we’ve come from in the last year or so 🙂

Finally I loved the Keynote Be an inspiration, not an impostor by Major Hayden. He’s published a follow up blog post with a FAQ too.

The least memorable bit was the terrible Amtrak ride back to New York City. On the plus side it makes the worst of the British National Rail service seem amazingly on time! NEVER AGAIN!

Fedora 22 on ARM and aarch64

So with Fedora 22 well and truly out for both ARMv7 and aarch64 lets have a look at the release in general and also at the 4.0 kernel it ships.

Firstly I’d like to shout out to the AMAZING job done by the web team on the new sites for Spins, ARM and Labs. They really do look awesome!

It’s all to easy to get bogged down in the actual technical components that make up the actual release and not forget that there’s work that goes on all over the place that contributes to making the release easy to use even before you begin the download.

Anyway! On to ARMv7. We shipped GA with the 4.0.4 kernel and u-boot 2015.01. This combination gives us improved support for numerous devices primarily through new DT support and improvements to drivers. The 4.0 kernel from an ARM HW support PoV really was a minor revision. With the fully packaged and updated fedora-arm-installer it’s even easier to get a device up and running.

We were hoping to get enough time to rebase this to 2015.04 but we just plain ran out of time, although we do have a plan to be able to update the u-boot when writing an image to card/stick without the need to regenerate the images. More details on the improvements we’re planning for fedora-arm-installer for another post!

From an aarch64 point of view the big change, although one an average user won’t notice, was we went from carrying a rather large (around 65K lines) enablement patch for the kernel to a small collection of 4 bug/problem specific patches! This is a massive change where in the F-21 cycle we had a gigantic architecture enablement patch! This makes it much more straight forward and less stressful for both myself as the architecture maintainer and the core Fedora kernel developers. In terms of the rest of aarch64 we still support VExpress, APM Storm platform primarily with the Mustang boards, and the AMD Seattle platform.

Overall the Fedora 22 release on the ARM platforms is a really nice release, there’s been some good changes there to enable easier and quicker updates in the future and easier means of adding decent support to new devices mid cycle. AArch64 is maturing and hopefully we’ll start to see some more platforms land and the architecture start to depart the niche status!

3.19 Fedora ARM kernel status

I’ve been a bit lazy on the ARM kernel status updates. There wasn’t one at all for 3.18 but the fact was, that while there was lots of under the hood improvements for ARM/aarch64, the new device support or improvements from a user’s point of view was positively boring so I never bothered!

That said the 3.19 kernel is now on it’s way to the stable Fedora releases and there’s some bit of interest there 🙂

Beginning with aarch64 there’s been a raft of code support landing upstream for the core platforms we support (VExpress, APM Storm, and AMD Seattle) which means the enablement patch set has shrunk massively. The core missing bit from this is primarily the ACPI patches for the server standards. There’s also been a lot of stability improvements for various device drivers particularly on the APM Storm SoC (which massively helps the high network and IO traffic we generate when doing composes in release engineering!). Other improvements include support for seccomp. The upstream support for aarch64 is really starting to settle down nicely which is good because there’s devices finally starting to get to the point where they’ll be more widely available and affordable 🙂

On to ARMv7 changes. In terms of new supported SoCs the support for AllWinner A-23 (aka sun8i) is the most interesting in terms of new devices. There was also a lot of general SoC improvements and cleanups. The largest here is probably Rockchips, QCom and ZYNQ with notable mentions to Tegra, OMAP and i.MX6 too. In terms of new devices we now solely support DeviceTree devices and the built .dtb files we ship that are possible to support with the kernel jumped from 250 to 265 devices. Of course it doesn’t mean we’re testing all of those devices but we’re testing devices across all main SoC groups to ensure at least the core support works. Of course feedback for what works and doesn’t is always welcome. In this cycle there was also significant driver work with special mention to Hans and his significant movement on the Allwinner devices.

I’ll do a longer post for 4.0 and the new u-boot we’ll be supporting in Fedora 22 soon.

Fedora aarch64, device tree and u-boot support

A question that I’ve had a few times in the last couple of weeks is whether Fedora supports Cute Embedded Nonsense Hacks, also known as u-boot and device tree, on aarch64 (ARM64) platforms?

The answer is YES!, of course, why wouldn’t we?

I know people are well aware of Red Hat’s involvement in the Server Base System Architecture (SBSA) which mandates the use of UEFI 2.4 and ACPI 5.1 bindings and that the Red Hat Partner Early Access Program uses that standard to enable easy booting and support of server platforms running on aarch64 platforms but the fact is that is not Fedora.

Fedora plans to support the SBSA to enable easy use of Fedora on aarch64 server platforms. But we also plan to support the current standard u-boot with device tree boot options. The fact of the matter is that a lot of non server based aarch64 platforms will continue to use these options and so we’ll continue to actively support them. Just like Fedora support Xen when the Fedora derived enterprise product does not. Basically it’s not hard for us to continue these options and with the improved generic distro support in u-boot, which we’ve actively participated in and driven, testing of Cute Embedded Nonsense Hacks on aarch64 should be easy and straight forward.

Of course the support of both SBSA based uEFI/ACPI or u-boot/DTB isn’t perfect on aarch64 yet so if you’ve got access to aarch64 systems on either platforms I would love testing and bug reports. If you’re a vendor that plans on using u-boot/DTB on aarch64 I would ask to ensure that you support the generic distro options because it’ll enable out of the box booting of at least Fedora, Debian and openSUSE to seamlessly just work on your devices.

3.17 Fedora ARM kernel status

With 3.17 due momentarily and Fedora 21 been delayed a little we’ll now be bumping the kernel that ships in F-21 GA. So lets have an overview of what improvements and changes are going to be there for ARM.

Overall 3.17 has been relatively boring in terms of shiny new hardware support for ARMv7. We’ve added support for a bunch of new devices through the addition of appropriate device tree bits. Some of the highlights there include a number of AllWinner devices such as the Banana Pi, a number of new FreeScale i.MX6 devices, some of RockChips devices, and the ZYNQ Parallella.

On the aarch64 side there’s been general improvements all over the place. Over all we don’t have any new platforms but there’s improvements to the three we do support (VExprees, APM X-Gene, AMD Seattle) but the VExpress Juno device should work and initial support for the ACPI 5.1 standard and improved uEFI both of which are part of ARM SBSA Server standard.

Along side 3.17, or at least very shortly there after, u-boot 2014.10 or at least a release candidate should land in F-21 as well. This release adds support for a lot of new devices, primarily AllWinner A-10/13/20 categories, as well as the Tegra Jetson K1, a few i.MX6 devices such as the RIoT Board and the newly upstream distro standards for booting. This makes it much easier for us to “just boot” Fedora ARM with a lot more devices making the experience of getting started a lot easier for most people with supported devices.

The combination of u-boot 2014.10 and the 3.17 kernel will be what we head towards Fedora 21 GA with and things are starting to come together nicely.